Although there is still a quest for pearls from nature, but most pearls that are on the market today is the result of human engineering. This technique was invented by the Japanese, Mikimoto at the beginning of the last century. Given so potential pearls that Japan keep this secret until the late 80s. So it is not surprising that Japan expand its business in other countries in the Pacific region and Indian Ocean like Indonesia by using its technology. Nevertheless, Indonesia as a potential cultivation area for almost all pearl shell species has become one of the world’s major pearl producing countries with Japan, China and Australia. kata kata mutiaraThis form of engineering is known as grafting or seeding or implantation, by inserting a nucleus with a mantle organ (another pearl mussel slice known as ‘saibo’) into a pearl shell. This mantle organ is taken by other pearl shell individuals and acts as a donor. Based on the research, the selection of good donors will determine the quality of pearls produced primarily in terms of color, shape and pearl luster. The core and slices of this mantle are placed inside the shell gonad after previously made small wedges on the gonad wall. Sliced meat coat will form a pearl sac (pearl sac) and will produce nacre. This process is known as biomineralization, as well as the process of bone formation in humans and other vertebrate animals. Nacre is a sparkling surface part of a pearl or a sparkling wall in a shell. On the inside of the shell, nacre is termed the Mother of Pearl (mother of the pearl) while the nacre attached to the core is called the pearl. The quality of the resulting nacre becomes a determinant of pearl quality as a whole. The insertion process is a small part of a long sequence of cultivation processes from the determination of the cultivation site to post-harvest handling. The principle of this insertion process is based on how the pearls form naturally where the shell will encapsulate irritant that can not be avoided by nacre. The principle of work is the same when the shells are damaged shells, they will immediately close the hole with nacre so as to prevent the soft body exposed. But so far there is no evidence that natural pearls are formed due to the entry of grains of sand into the shell’s body. A strong assumption that supports the formation of this nacre layer is the presence of a virus as found in some species of pearl shells that are cultivated. The process of making pearls Naturally In nature, pearls are formed by the irritants that enter the pearl shell coat. The phenomenon of the irritant is often also interpreted by the entry of sand or solids into the mantle then this object will be wrapped in nacre so that it becomes a pearl. Theoretically, Elisabeth Strack (deeply embodied in the Pearls of 2006) describes the formation of a natural pearl divided into two large sections, formed by irritants and the entry of solid particles in the mollusk mantle. In principle, pearls are formed because of parts of the mantle’s epithelium that enter into the mantle’s cavity. The epithelium part of this mantle is responsible for removing the nacre on the inside of the shell’s shell as well as forming the entire shell. The irritant theory reveals that at one time the tip of the shell’s mantle is eaten by the fish, this is possible because the shells will open the shell and stick out the mantle to absorb the food. When the mantle is broken, the crust part eptiheliumpun into the mantle cavity. The irritant theory also reveals that pearls may be formed by the entry of worms that normally occupy the molluscs during its development and then move on to other organisms. This worm destroys and enters the mantle cavity. This worm accidentally brought part of the epithelium that is on the surface of the mantle with it. When the worm dies in the mantle cavity, the worm will be wrapped by the epithelium, forming a pearl sac and eventually forming a pearl. Even if the worm can break away, then the epithelium that lives in the mantellah cavity that will form a pearl after previously forming a pearl bag. While the second theory is the entry of solid particles into the mantle cavity. Solid particles may be trapped in the body of the shell as a result of water impulse. When these shells can not get it out, even this particles can get into the mantle cavity. As he enters, the epithelium also comes with him. This epithelium eventually wraps around solid particles to form pearl bags. This pearl bag will eventually mendeposisikan nacre to the solid particles.
However, so far there is no scientific evidence to support the theory of sand entry into the pearl shell coat though theoretical